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The tug of war group had a normal blood haematology profile although packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte volume were lower than for the rugby group.

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It is interesting that O2MAX, expressed in absolute terms (litres/min), was lower for the tug of war group than for the rugby forwards.

However, when corrected for body weight, O2MAX was higher in the tug of war group.

The values for combined grip strength are well above the average for age matched normative data in untrained subjects (952–1020 N)12 and greater than those reported for Olympic class sailors.13 The data are similar to those observed elsewhere for elite rowers,14 rugby players,15 and taekwon do athletes.16 In contrast, a comparison of isometric strength tests based on a composite measure of grip and back strength showed that the tug of war group had a significantly higher strength to body mass ratio when adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass.

This is despite the fact that the rugby forwards had a similar percentage body fat and significantly higher lean body mass.

An increase in plasma creatine kinase may indicate exercise induced skeletal muscle damage, which has been shown to result in disruption of the myofibril at the level of the sarcomere, Z band streaming, and necrotic fibres.23–25 The process is generally initiated by unusual or extreme exercise that includes eccentric muscle contractions.

We have previously shown elevated creatine kinase levels after a single bout of isometric exercise and exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions.26–28 These exercise induced increases in creatine kinase may remain for up to 10 days after an exercise bout.29 Tug of war includes not only high intensity isometric and concentric contractions, but also substantial eccentric loads on the active muscle groups.

*Significant difference between groups, p Tug of war Rugby forwards Normative values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sit and reach (cm) 25.4 (2.0) 25.7 (1.8) 15–30 Forward flexion (cm) 8.0 (2.1) 9.4 (1.6) 10–25 Back flexion (cm) 28.6 (1.4)* 34.2 (1.5) 35–50 Dominant hand grip strength (N) 622 (20.9) 607.1 (13.2) 540–687 Non-dominant hand grip strength (N) 591.4 (20.7) 568.2 (12.5) 540–687 Composite strength/kg BW 38.5 (1.1)* 28.8 (1.2) 30.4–45.5 Composite strength/kg LBM 46.4 (1.5)* 35 (1.5) 34.7–52 Back strength (N) 2004.8 (104.4) 1930.8 (73.8) 1471–2452 Bench press 3-RM (kg) 64.8 (3.3) N/A 70–110 Squat 3-RM (kg) 162.7 (6.2) N/A 160–230 Vertical jump (W) 4659.8 (151.6)* 6198.21 (105) 4957–5995 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Values are presented as mean (SEM).

*Significant difference between the groups, p Tug of war Expected laboratory values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 (0.1) 3.5–6 Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.3 (0.3) 3.6–6.5 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.2) 0.8–1.8 Creatinine (µmol/l) 110 (2.8) 60–115 Total protein (g/l) 81.3 (0.9) 64–83 Alanine transaminase (U/l) 17.5 (1.8) Tug of war Rugby forwards Expected laboratory values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Packed cell volume (%) 43.3 (0.5)* 46.4 (0.4) 40–54 Haemoglobin (g/l) 150 (2)* 154 (1) 14–16 Red blood cells (x1012/l) 5.0 (0.1) 5.0 (0.1) 4.6–6.5 White blood cells (x109/l) 6.7 (0.3) 6.6 (0.3) 4–8 Red blood cell volume (fl) 86.4 (0.8)* 92.2 (1.7) 82–89 Platelets (x109/l) 232.2 (11.1) 246.3 (10.6) 150–400 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Values are presented as mean (SEM).

Nevertheless, the selection of the sit and reach test can be justified in that tug of war requires a similar movement pattern.

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