Sex dating in harpenden hertfordshire

*Significant difference between the groups, p Discussion The results of this study describe the physiological, anthropometric, biochemical, and haematological characteristics of elite tug of war athletes.

sex dating in harpenden hertfordshire-19sex dating in harpenden hertfordshire-21

Because of the emphasis on isometric and slow dynamic muscular contraction associated with the pulling action in tug of war, it is not surprising that dynamic leg power was significantly lower in the tug of war group than in the rugby forwards.

The values of the former were found to be unexceptional for young fit adults,20 but nevertheless higher than those reported for tae kwon do athletes.16 In contrast with tug of war, explosive leg power has been shown to be essential in the game of rugby and in particular for forwards in activities such as lineout and scrummaging.11 The data for rugby forwards in the present study are similar to values reported elsewhere for rugby15 and soccer.21 The results of the selected flexibility tests show that only a moderate level of flexibility appears necessary for high level performance in tug of war.

*Significant difference between groups, p Tug of war Rugby forwards Normative values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sit and reach (cm) 25.4 (2.0) 25.7 (1.8) 15–30 Forward flexion (cm) 8.0 (2.1) 9.4 (1.6) 10–25 Back flexion (cm) 28.6 (1.4)* 34.2 (1.5) 35–50 Dominant hand grip strength (N) 622 (20.9) 607.1 (13.2) 540–687 Non-dominant hand grip strength (N) 591.4 (20.7) 568.2 (12.5) 540–687 Composite strength/kg BW 38.5 (1.1)* 28.8 (1.2) 30.4–45.5 Composite strength/kg LBM 46.4 (1.5)* 35 (1.5) 34.7–52 Back strength (N) 2004.8 (104.4) 1930.8 (73.8) 1471–2452 Bench press 3-RM (kg) 64.8 (3.3) N/A 70–110 Squat 3-RM (kg) 162.7 (6.2) N/A 160–230 Vertical jump (W) 4659.8 (151.6)* 6198.21 (105) 4957–5995 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Values are presented as mean (SEM).

*Significant difference between the groups, p Tug of war Expected laboratory values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 (0.1) 3.5–6 Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.3 (0.3) 3.6–6.5 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.2) 0.8–1.8 Creatinine (µmol/l) 110 (2.8) 60–115 Total protein (g/l) 81.3 (0.9) 64–83 Alanine transaminase (U/l) 17.5 (1.8) Tug of war Rugby forwards Expected laboratory values -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Packed cell volume (%) 43.3 (0.5)* 46.4 (0.4) 40–54 Haemoglobin (g/l) 150 (2)* 154 (1) 14–16 Red blood cells (x1012/l) 5.0 (0.1) 5.0 (0.1) 4.6–6.5 White blood cells (x109/l) 6.7 (0.3) 6.6 (0.3) 4–8 Red blood cell volume (fl) 86.4 (0.8)* 92.2 (1.7) 82–89 Platelets (x109/l) 232.2 (11.1) 246.3 (10.6) 150–400 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Values are presented as mean (SEM).

An increase in plasma creatine kinase may indicate exercise induced skeletal muscle damage, which has been shown to result in disruption of the myofibril at the level of the sarcomere, Z band streaming, and necrotic fibres.23–25 The process is generally initiated by unusual or extreme exercise that includes eccentric muscle contractions.

We have previously shown elevated creatine kinase levels after a single bout of isometric exercise and exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions.26–28 These exercise induced increases in creatine kinase may remain for up to 10 days after an exercise bout.29 Tug of war includes not only high intensity isometric and concentric contractions, but also substantial eccentric loads on the active muscle groups.As body weight was different between the two groups, the normalisation of O2MAX for body weight allows direct comparison of aerobic power.Strength is a vital attribute of tug of war, with high levels of grip, back, and leg strength being essential to resist the large forces generated by the opposing team.As the tug of war group was in training at the time of testing, they were asked to refrain from intense training for the two days preceding the tests.Given that creatine kinase levels may remain elevated for prolonged periods after exercise, it is most likely that tug of war training, with its associated stress on the muscles, caused some exercise induced muscle damage and the resultant elevated blood creatine kinase levels.In contrast, the pectoralis major, deltoids and triceps predominate in the pushing motion of the bench press.

Tags: , ,