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Chichén Itzá, with a mostly local Yucatec Maya population, established regional alliances with polities such as Uxmal that are reflected in both hieroglyphic inscriptions and Puuc architectural commonalities.Concurrently, the Putun Maya lineage known as the Itza was expanding its sphere of influence into Yucatán's southwestern Gulf Coast, at the city of Chakanputun (now called Champoton).more The ancient Maya ruins of Chichén Itzá, located on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula about 50 miles inland south of the Caribbean coastline, represent the remains of one of the largest and most powerful city states of the pre-Columbian Americas.
The staircase at the front of the Caracol faces 27.5 degrees north of west, perfectly in line with the northern positional extreme of Venus and producing alignments at the building's northeast and southeast corners that track both the summer and winter solstices.
The Caracol is one of the oldest standing observatories in the Americas, and highlights the great importance that astrological phenomena held for the people of Chichén Itzá.return to topmore Chichén Itzá's history as a major political center in the northern Yucatán is extensive, stretching from the Classic period well into the Post-Classic.
However, much of these surrounding ruins are unexcavated and are currently covered with a mixture of dense forest and farms.
Chichén Itzá translates as "At the Mouth of the Well of the Itza" in Yucatec Mayan, a reference to the nearby Sacred Cenote, or sinkhole, where offerings were made to various deities and from which the city derived much of its water supply.
According to archaeologist Cynthia Kristan-Graham, many structures at the site reflect a concept of city planning known as a ‘Galactic Polity’; at Chichén Itzá, scale replicas of important buildings connect to their larger center by means of a specific Sacbe (ceremonial road).
This pattern can be seen at archaeological site of Mayapan as well, which was constructed as a small-scale replica of Chichén Itzá’s monumental core.
Towards the beginning of the 7th century CE, during the beginning of the Late Classic, this Maya agricultural region saw increasing population density and the construction of some permanent structures, including the Puuc-styled Las Monjas (Nunnery) complex.
It was during the 9th century, however, that the settlement began to turn into a city, and by the early 10th century, during the Terminal Classic, Chichén Itzá was a regional powerhouse.
Chichén Itzá contains a relatively wide range of roofing styles, which is unique for a Mayan archaeological site.
The site includes rectangular beam-and-mortar structures such as the temple atop El Castillo, wooden or thatch ones such as the roof that probably rested atop El Mercado, and Mexican-styled round structures such as El Caracol.
The civic heart of Chichén Itzá is surrounded by a boundary wall and was the ultimate destination of several long, broad stucco-paved roads (plurally known as Sacbeob) leading to surrounding population centers and other areas of importance.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating