Developing and validating a questionnaire to measure spirituality onlinedating over30

Three semi-structured focus groups were then conducted to allow pharmacists to identify and explore scenarios that cause moral distress.Each of the identified scenarios were developed into a statement, which was paired with twin seven-point Likert scales to measure the frequency and intensity of the distress, respectively.

Conclusion Results from this distribution will be used to inform the formulation of coping strategies for dealing with moral distress. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader: and validation of a questionnaire to measure moral distress in community pharmacists Jayne L. Gallagher 0 1 0 School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire , Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB , UK 1 & Cathal T.

Background Pharmacists work within a highly-regulated occupational sphere, and are bound by strict legal frameworks and codes of professional conduct.

This regulatory environment creates the potential for moral distress to occur due to the limitations it places on acting in congruence with moral judgements.

However, the following consolidated definition, proposed by Nathaniel, encapsulates the phenomenon of moral distress in contemporary healthcare: Moral distress is the pain affecting the mind, body or relationships that results from a patient care situation, in which the [practitioner] is aware of a moral problem, acknowledges moral responsibility and makes a moral judgement about the correct action, yet, as a result of real or perceived constraints, participates, either by act or omission, in a manner he or she perceives to be morally wrong [10]. Falco-Pegueroles A , Lluch-Canut T , Guardia-Olmos J.

Studies concerning moral distress in the nursing profession have identified significant negative consequences for both health of the clinician and the quality of patient care. Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires . Development process and initial validation of the ethical conflict in nursing questionnaire-critical care version .

Questionnaire development The study adopted Myers and Oetzel’s three-phase exploratory sequential mixed method design [24], as described by Creswell and Plano Clark [25].

An initial (qualitative) stage was used to explore moral distress from the perspective of practicing community pharmacists and to identify the pharmacy practice situations that they associate with experiences of moral distress.

Subsequent studies have suggested that moral distress is relevant to and reported by various disciplines including psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, podiatrists, psychologists, physiotherapists and respiratory therapists [16–21].

Pharmacists working in the UK operate within a highlyregulated occupational sphere, and are bound by strict legal frameworks and codes of professional conduct. Development and psychometric properties of the ethics environment questionnaire .

During the second stage, the qualitative findings were used to inform the development of an instrument to capture data regarding the intensity of moral distress and the frequency of its occurrence as experienced by community pharmacists.

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