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The etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך (pūk), "paint" (if not that word itself), a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean. The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria.

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However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events.

The table below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae.

The shape varies from plant to plant; they may be of discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral, or ribbon shaped.

They have one or more pyrenoids to preserve protein and starch.

The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the stoneworts. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells". Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.

Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga.Algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria.Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago.Some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids, dinoflagellates, and other algae have become heterotrophs (also called colorless or apochlorotic algae), sometimes parasitic, relying entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are also derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally considered as algae.Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while others have lost plastids entirely.

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